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Tip Box


Proper nouns begin with capital letters.

The capital letter indicates the significance of the proper noun.

The significance of a proper noun is only used in writing.

When a proper noun contains other noun types or adjectives, those words become significant, therefore they also begin with a capital letter.

As a rule, verbs and determiners are not significant when in a proper noun, therefore they do not begin with a capital letter.

What is a proper noun?

A proper noun is a title given to identify that which is singular.


A proper noun is usually a name given to a person, place or thing, but can include animals such as a pet's name, a company name and a nickname.

A proper noun translates from the Latin word propruis "one's own, particular to itself".

The word "noun"evolved from the Latin word"nomen".

In Latin "nomen means "name".

Nouns are naming words.


What is a noun?

To properly convey what a noun represents one must first understand the basic function of a noun.

The basic function of a noun is to identify something by name.

One could think of noun types as, "proper name", "common name", "abstract name" etc.

However  "name" does not refer to a specific word group, where as "noun" does.

What is a compound noun?


A compound noun is the joining of of two other words to create a new noun.


A compound noun will include the pairing of other words that are not nouns to create a new noun.


A compound noun is still a noun and  as such it must be a name of something.

Tip Box.

There are "open, "closed", and hyphenated forms of compound noun.

Closed form compound nouns are usually noun plus noun or verb sufix. .

Open form compound nouns denote an interchangeable prefix and suffix.

The hyphenated form usually denotes the joining of a pronoun, verb, adverb to a suffix.

An oxymoron is not a compound noun.

Tip Box.

An abstract noun is  used to

describe intangible nouns.


The opposite of an abstract noun is a concrete noun


What is an abstract noun?

An abstract noun is any noun that is used to define a concept.


The word abstract in its adjective case means to exist in thought or as an idea, not having a physical or concrete form.


An abstract noun used to name things that lack substance

Tip Box


A singular noun cannot represent more than one.

What is a singular noun?

A singular noun is a naming word that identifies there is one of something.

A singular noun is preceded  by a determiner.

What is a countable noun?

A countable noun is any singular noun that becomes plural when counted.


A countable noun can have a regular or irregular plural form.


Countable nouns follow the same rules as singular and plural nouns.

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A countable noun is a singular noun that can have a plural suffix added.

Pronouns are reference words.

A pronoun is used to refer to a noun, in many cases a pronoun will replace  a specific noun.












Comparative adjective

Compund adjective

Proper  adjective

Possessive adjective

Indefinate adjective

Predicate adjective

Demonstative adjective

Superlitave adjective

 Adjective clause


Superlative adjective

Irregular superlative


Transitive verb

Dynamic verb

Regular verb

Action  verb

Helping verb

Copular verb

Intransitive verb

Stative verb

Irregular verb

Common action verb

Linking verb

Modal verb



"Stephanus bene 'se habet'"

A translator would be more literal. "Stephanus  'holds himself' well".

An interpreter would be more poetic "Stephanus is  'feeling' well".

This can be confusing for beginners when they see two varying accounts for the same sentence.

However, both accounts are correct,

"holding" being a mental verb not a physical verb.

This is better understood in the sentence

"How are you holding up" and "How are you feeling".

Having the ability to flip from translation to interpretation will be  a great advantage when learning a new language.

Things that will make learning Latin easier

A good understanding of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs,

prefixes and suffixes

Knowing the difference between translation and interpretation.

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